Tuesday, February 22, 2011

A Different Kind of Sickness

A Different Kind of Sickness
Reflections on Chi Kong: A Peacebuilding Self-Transformation Exercise
By Jan Perry B. Eugenio

          I was preparing for my eight-hour travel in Cotabato City for the lecture on “The Person of the Peacebuilder” by Professor Bebot Rodil.  Prior to that, I had my share of pressures both in my personal life and my work, i.e. family affairs, unfinished projects, loads of cases, etc.  It was quite a baggage that I brought to Cotabato.

          The first day of the lecture was light.  It started with a fifteen-minute Chi-kong which is a slow yet intense series of movements of the body.  The short exercise loosened up my body.  The lectures then proceeded.  I learned that inner peace starts within one’s self.  I have to unload myself from my emotional baggage and thereafter create space.  Space creates inner peace. 

Then, I started with the “processing” of my own self.  It only required the awareness of my immediate environment and my physical body.  I was made conscious of the air that enters my nostrils and exits through my mouth.  I inhaled heavily, and exhaled all through out.  It was quite an experience. 

          On the second day, I replicated the processing.  This time I have to locate the pain inside my body.  I thought it was my back.  I had it at seven.  It took me another fifteen minutes for deep breathing.  The pain was down to four.  But still, it was there.

          The third day was significant.  I processed my fear of heights.  Again, deep and slow breathing.  I tried to transfer the pain from my back to my arms.  Then from my arms to my hands.  The pain was now at three.  I breathed heavily. 

Eventually, the three day lecture was done.  Yet, the pain was still there. 

          That afternoon, I traveled back to Cagayan de Oro via Sultan Naga Dimaporo.  The travel was long as I sat on a fully air-conditioned Pajero.  It was extremely cold for me.  I arrived at around in the evening in Cagayan de Oro City.  When I entered my room, I started to chill.  The cold was unbearable. 

That next day, I had a high fever.  It was my first fever in two years and probably the worst.  The pain was all over my back.  I had no appetite for any food and neither could I stand for more than a minute.  I slept the whole day.

          Surprisingly, the next morning my fever was down.  I had my appetite back.  I was beginning to regain my energy.  The pain on my back was gone.  All gone.  I felt good.  I asked myself why I had that fever when I never got rained nor approached anyone who had fever.  Then I realized I had my emotional baggage “processed” during the three day lecture.  The social pressures, frozen emotions and push buttons were “felt” and were instinctively unleashed. 

It was a different kind of sickness.  One that I have never felt before.  An ailment which I needed to experience in order to bring back my personal “self”.   The pain on my back which I have been carrying for quite some time, several years, was mysteriously removed.  My body was so light that I finally gained control over it.  It felt light.  Really light.

          The stress, anxiety and strain were removed from my body.  I was emptied.  There was space inside me. 

Finally, I felt inner peace.


Can Abortion be Ethical?

Can Abortion be Ethical?
A Reflection Paper on Fr. Antonio Pueyo’s Lecture on Ethics
By Jan Perry B. Eugenio

            One night, Neneng, a devoted and faithful Christian, was on her way home after working in the Church the whole day.  Mario, one of her neighbors who was drunk at that time, grabbed her from behind while she was walking and took her to a shady area.  Then and there, Neneng was forcibly raped by Mario.  Eventually, Mario was caught by the police and was sent to jail.  Later, Neneng was pregnant as a result of the incident.  Neneng, who was then four months pregnant, wants to abort the child.  The Church strongly opposed the idea.  Her parents were mum on the issue.  The community where she lived gave contradicting opinions.  What do you think about aborting the baby?

            Personally, I am against abortion.  I believe that a fetus is already considered a living person.  Being such, the fetus is entitled to the right to life which calls for the protection of the state against any form of violation against such right.  I believe that a woman cannot dispose of a child simply because she does not want to have a baby.  A woman cannot avail herself of abortion at her whims as it is considered killing a person.

            However, the circumstances of the case present a different situation.  Neneng was forcibly impregnated through a sexual encounter which she herself did not consent.  Further, it is unfair on her part to bear out a child with someone who has terribly wronged her.  Worst, it would be an agony for Neneng if she is forced to raise a child who, in all probability, would carry the physical attributes of the child’s father who happens to be her offender. 

            In this instance, I believe abortion may be validly available to Neneng without any violation of any cardinal rights to life.  For Neneng, she has a right to her own life more than any one else.  Abortion is a legitimate moral action for her situation.  The Church should not opposed her action as Neneng has proven that she is a devoted Christian and her intention of aborting the baby does not make her less than a Christian.    

            Neneng was just protecting her dignity and her womanhood.  For that, I commend her in the deepest sense.





The Mystery Behind the Crescent Moon

The Mystery Behind the Crescent Moon
A Book Review on “Under the Crescent Moon: Rebellion in Mindanao
                                                     By Jan Perry B. Eugenio

            Maritess Vitug and Glenda Gloria, who both authored the book “Under the Crescent Moon: Rebellion in Mindanao” did a daring and bold move in intimately revealing the historical context of the conflict in Mindanao, including the dynamics and politics of key personalities, especially that of Nur Misuari, Hashim Salamat, Ferdinand Marcos, and a number of the officers of the Armed Forces.  More importantly, the book gave a detailed overview of the Bangsamoro perspective, including that of the MNLF and the MILF, and their cause in Mindanao, and how the same affected the country as well as the international community. 

            Hence, I made four important points based on the book which gave me significant reflections on the Mindanao conflict.

            First, Vitug and Gloria gave tremendous emphasis on the Jabidah Massacre implying that the said incident was the foremost cause of the conflict in Mindanao.  The Jabidah massacre refers to the incident on March 18, 1968 wherein a presidential helicopter swooped down on Corregidor shortly after the killing of several young Muslim men being trained to infiltrate and destabilize Sabah.  Without doubt, the Jabidah massacre was a critical event which highlighted the present day conflict in Mindanao.  However, the said incident was merely a result of a then growing and escalating social disparity among the peoples of Mindanao.  The Jabidah massacre, indeed, was only the tip of the iceberg.
            The conflict in Mindanao is historical.  History recounts that there is a squabble regarding the Mindanao identity especially that the country was predominantly Islam even prior to the Spanish colonization in the 15th century.  It was the Muslims who stood firm against any foreign colonization.  Ironically, in a short span of time, the Muslims became the minority.

            Land is another issue.  The Muslims were the early settlers of Mindanao until they were illegally thrown out under the so-called resettlement program during the Magsaysay Regime wherein Illonggos and Ilocanos from the North were given lands in Mindanao.   The Muslims demand respect for ancestral domain.  The settlers claim legal titles.  Worst, the same land is under the control of mostly the settlers, both politically and economically.  Eventually, the Muslims of Mindanao are gradually being deprived of their access, control and power over the land which they once considered as theirs. 

            Hence, historically there was already an existing structural inequity in terms of the socio-political and economic relations between the Muslims and the non-Muslims even prior to the Jabidha massacre in 1968.  In a sense, the Jabidah massacre was an anticipated occurrence as a consequence of the escalating “psychological warfare” between the Muslims of Mindanao and the so-called Filipinos.  Indeed, Jabidah massacre was a result, not the cause.

            Secondly, the authors gave a detailed elucidation of the failure of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) in the early stage of its implementation in 1990.  Although not expressly stated by the authors, there was an apparent implication that the members of the MNLF are incapable of handling the intricacies of the bureaucracy.           

            Accordingly, massive corruption in amounts of millions of pesos took place in the offices of the ARMM.  The said office was also filled with non-performing political appointees which bloated the ARMM bureaucracy.  Despite its huge fund sourcing from the government and quite a lot of personnel, the ARMM region remained as one of the poorest region in the country.  The communities still lived way below the poverty line and without being provided with the basic services that they terribly need, in addition to the unresponsive leadership of the ARMM officials.

            Although the allegations of corruption and other forms of irregularities within the said office seemed substantial, it is incorrect to conclude that the ARMM is a big failure in terms of political autonomy of the Muslim Mindanao.  For sure, the ARMM is still at its inception stage, thus, you cannot expect the same to be as well-organized and efficient as it was conceived by both the negotiating panels.  It has to undergo the bureaucratic processes in order to experience genuine political autonomy. 

            Besides, it is too impossible to expect from the members of MNLF who were used to the armed operations and maneuvers to immediately adjust to the bureaucratic methods.  Again, everything has to undergo a process which would definitely take time.  A point in case is the national government itself which is still struggling from the evils of corruption despite the fact that its structure has been in operation for decades already.
            Significantly though, the ARMM was not really given genuine political autonomy as promised by the national government in accordance to the signing of the peace pact between the MNLF and the government.  The present structure of the ARMM is a mere duplication of the existing local government units. Even its fiscal arrangement is clearly dependent on the national government.  Consequently, it is still largely dependent on the whims of the congress. 

            Hence, the office should be provided with the appropriate structures and mechanisms which can truly be considered autonomous in order for the same to properly serve its function.  It is quite unfair to undermine the capacity and efficiency of the ARMM when its present structures and mechanisms are only beginning to discover its future.

            On the contrary, the establishment of the ARMM has dramatically decreased the actual and physical armed confrontations in the region from hundreds of incidents in the previous years to less than ten incidents in the recent years.  It can also be gleaned that although ARMM regions remains the poorest in the country, the economic growth of some of the provinces are already beginning to increase as compared before.  These are instances which seem so trivial but have tremendous significance.  Such should be highlighted and given credit to ARMM.

            My third point, which is evidently the most glaring in the book, is that the authors presented the socio-political dynamics of Mindanao by focusing more on individuals rather than actual communities.  Much has been said about Nur Misuari, Hashim Salamat and other founders of the Moro groups, including their educational and social background, their relatives and friends, their lectures and ambitions and almost everything about their personal lives.  In the same way, the political tug-of-war by and between the generals and majors of the Armed Forces of the Philippines under the leadership of the Head of State from Ferdinand Marcos (including Imelda Marcos), Cory Aquino, Joseph Estrada and Fidel Ramos, and their secret emissaries.  Even their flings and their favorite hobbies were mentioned. 

            Although the minute details given to each of the personalities mentioned above could give a historical background of the management of the Mindanao conflict, the most important aspect of such details, to wit, the relationship between the above-mentioned key personalities and the actual local communities, were detached from the socio-political context. 

            For instance, Nur Misuari’s lack of bureaucratic skills was mentioned several times.  But what has this got to do with the Maguindanaon’s in Parang?  How does that affect the Tausugs of Sulu who were his fellow tribesmen?  Does the Maranao care about all these things? 

            My point is that the Muslim communities were left out in the dark.  The local Muslim communities’ perspective during those times leaves much to be desired as only key personalities were highlighted.  The Marcos dictatorial regime may have increased the physical stigma against Misuari and his men, but the “psychological warfare” created among the whole Muslim communities in the Philippines was not clearly accounted for.

            Lastly, the book itself was a story of its own.  It started with a gloomy narrative of the Jabidah Massacre and then proceeded to expose the various personalities who were key to the establishment of the MNLF, MILF and other Bangsamoro groups.  It also revealed the politics of both national and international identities which in one way or another either helped or aggravated the situation.  It also introduced the development of the stigma created by the international community against the so-called ‘Muslim extremist/terrorist” particularly that of the 9/11 incident, apparently lead by the US forces.  Eventually, the peace pact was signed.  The book ended with short stories of the rehabilitation of Mindanao.  It ended peacefully, albeit microscopic.  Such reminds us that just like the book, everything has an ending.  The Mindanao conflict has to end.  It has to end peacefully. 

            Further, what strike me the most is the title of the book itself, “Under the Crescent Moon: Rebellion in Mindanao”.  What is the mystery behind the crescent moon?  Does Mindanao have any longing for the mystic moon?  I know for a fact that there is what the astrologist call as the “Lady in the Moon”.  It is a picture of an inverted face of a woman with a diamond necklace near her breast.  It may only be seen when it is a full moon.  Accordingly, the “Lady in the Moon” symbolizes peace and prosperity for all those who find her.  Probably, behind the crescent moon lies the peace and prosperity that we all the peoples have been longing for.  If the Lady shows herself once in a while, then indeed, there is hope for Mindanao to find peace and prosperity.  It is just a matter of finding and searching for genuine peace.

            It was 10:00 in the evening of January 3, 2007 that I finished this paper.  T’was a full moon.

Beyond Lanuza Bay

Beyond Lanuza Bay
The Challenges of CARCANMADCARLANCORTAN-Lanuza Bay Development Alliance

Jan Perry B. Eugenio
Policy Advocacy Officer, BALAOD Mindanaw

The CARCANMADCARLANCORTAN-Lanuza Bay Development Alliance (LBDA) is an alliance of the seven municipalities within Lanuza Bay, Surigao del Sur, namely, Carrascal, Cantilan, Madrid, Carmen, Lanuza, Cortez and Tandag. 

The seven municipalities wanted to unify their efforts for the exercise of their rights and obligations, and declare their mutual respect to ensure a unified, integrated, judicious and wise utilization, protection, conservation and management of coastal and fishery resources.  In line with this, two national laws are applicable as venues for their coordination: the Philippine Fisheries Code of 1998 (RA 8550) and the Local Government Code of 1991 (RA 7160).   RA 8550 allows the administration of the contiguous fishery resources in an integrated manner and which shall not be based on political subdivisions of municipal waters in order to facilitate their management as single resource systems.  Furthermore, the adjacent LGUs may formulate and recommend the enactment of a unified fishery ordinance which shall be enforceable throughout the vicinity.  On the other hand, the LGC expressly provides that the legislative authority of the LGUs is restricted to their respective territorial jurisdictions because the code recognizes only the local government units created by the code: provinces, cities, municipalities, barangays and other political subdivisions created by law. 

Apparently, there is a conflict between RA 8550 and the LGC with respect to the authority and jurisdiction of LGUs to control contiguous fishery resources, the former providing for an integrated administration without reference to political subdivisions, whereas, the latter providing for the extent of authority and territorial jurisdiction of each political subdivision. 

In an attempt to harmonize the inconsistent provisions of the two national laws, the seven municipalities went through several crucial and novel legislative processes instead of the traditional lawmaking procedure.  It opted to allow the stakeholders of Lanuza Bay to participate in the finalization of the ordinance, before it was formally adopted in the Sanggunian Bayan of each of the seven municipalities.  In line with this, several workshops were made beginning June 2003 up to November 2004 with various stakeholders of the Lanuza Bay Area, namely the fisherfolk communities, members of the Sangguniang Bayan, fisherfolk organizations, Municipal Environment Management Project Officers (MEMPOs) of each municipality, members of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management Councils (FARMCs) of each municipality, PNP Maritime, local PNP, deputized fish wardens, and Municipal Environment and Natural Resources Officers (MENROs).

On 01 March 2004, the Covenant Governing the Integrated Coastal Resource Management of the Municipalities of Carrascal, Cantillan, Madrid, Carmen, Lanuza, Cortes, and Tandag (CARCANMADCARLANCORTAN-Lanuza Bay Development Alliance), was formally signed by all the local Chief Executives of the seven municipalities through a resolution passed by their respective Sangguniang Bayan authorizing them to sign the same.  Each of the Sangguniang Bayan of the seven municipalities then passed an ordinance, adopting the covenant and making the same as an integral part of their respective municipal ordinances. 

Since the enactment of the ordinances, a lot of significant developments were felt.  The Baywide Enforcement Action Team (BEAT) conducted a daily sea borne patrol operation along the Lanuza Bay to monitor illegal fishing activities within the area.  Commercial fishing within municipal waters gradually decreased.  Active fishing gears used in illegal fishing were impounded.  A total of 11 cases of illegal fishing activities were prosecuted in courts.       

However, the alliance also had its share of difficulties and obstacles.  The existence of the CARCANMADCARLANCORTAN-Lanuza Bay Development Alliance is being attacked as an illegal association.  The municipal ordinances enacted by the seven municipalities are being assailed as invalid for want of the required public hearing and consultations.  The provisions of the said ordinances were purportedly unconstitutional for they contravene RA 8550.  Even the authority of the BEAT enforcers to apprehend violators of the law is condemned to be illegal.  Such allegations were made by commercial fishing operators who were prosecuted for violating the law.

Ironically, despite the indubitable constitutionality and validity of the ordinances and their genuine intention of providing for a unified management for the protection and conservation of Lanuza Bay, the socio-political environment tends to favor the commercial fishing operators.  They have constructively lodged a campaign against the alliance.  They falsely illustrated to the public that the municipal ordinances would bring more harm and detriment to the coastal and fishing resources of the bay.  They even organized a protest rally in front of the municipal halls of Cantilan and called for the protection of commercial fishers in the area. 

The current developments alarmed the alliance and made them realize that serious efforts and close coordination are absolutely necessary to combat illegal fishing activities within Lanuza Bay.  Council meetings of the alliance are called as often as necessary to discuss possible solutions and strategies, both legal and metalegal.  The critical support of peoples’ organizations and non-government organizations advocating for sustainable and effective coastal resource management, were recognized.  Paralegal formations were proposed to educate and empower the local fisherfolk communities.

It is disheartening that the seven municipalities are experiencing this predicament considering that the assailed legislations were made by the alliance through their consolidated and concerted efforts precisely for the protection and conservation of Lanuza Bay.  Nevertheless, their principle and conviction to work for the betterment and interest of the fisherfolk communities and for the whole populace of CARCANMADCARLANCORTAN gives them the strength and vigor to hurdle each and every obstacle they encounter.  The determination and passion of the Alliance to continue to do what they know and firmly believe is for the betterment and interest of the community, the environment and future generations is best summed up in the words of the Project Management Officer of the alliance, Ranulfo Arreza, who had a chance to meet ordinary fisherfolks who would casually approach him in the streets narrating how their catch had been steadily increasing these days and expressing their gratitude for the efforts of the alliance:

“The heart-warming gratitude of the local people affirms that I am doing the right thing and their aspiration drives me to pursue this battle.”

Consuelo Kills the Talaandig!

Consuelo Kills the Talaandig!
The MILALITTRA Struggle for Land Rights

            Consuelo seems to be everyone’s good old friend. 

Who could not befriend Consuelo? Consuelo offers the best Steak A la Mari, a toploin cut steak seared on the grill with garlic and dry mustard.  Consuelo’s Big Boss Burger with thick grilled beef patty topped with double cheese bacon strips and mushrooms is definitely an all-time favorite.  Not to mention the vegetarian choice of Vegetable Stir Fry, a combination of fresh veggies with lemon twists.  Hence, Cagayanons always make it a point to visit Consuelo every Friday nights to have a sip of the famous Bulalo Espesyal, a meaty beef round bone with marrow, smothered with hot mushroom sauce, the house specialty.

Unfortunately, it appears that Cagayanons are blinded by the sumptuous choice that Consuelo could offer.  What they did not know was the secrecy behind Consuelo.  Every time Consuelo speaks, Yolanda suffers.  When Consuelo utters, Primo falls.  Worst, if Consuelo talks, Petoy expires. 

Consuelo kills the Talaandig!

The Talaandig Indigenous Cultural Communities in Miarayon, Talakag, Bukidnon have been living since time immemorial on the land they claimed to have inherited from Magbabaya. 

With the advent of the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (RA 8731), MILALITTRA, an association of Talaandig Tribal Communities in Miarayon, Lapok, and Lirongan, Bukidnon, processed their ancestral domain claim in the NCIP.  On 25 July 2003, Certificate of Ancestral Domain Claim (CADT) No. R10-TAL-0703-0010 was issued by virtue of NCIP En Banc Resolution No. 08-02003 to the Talaandig cultural communities.  Finally, on 30 October 2003, President Gloria M. Arroyo awarded the said CADT to the Talaandigs.  The Talaandig communities have been living peacefully on the said land as it was before.  Indeed, everything was in order.

 Then came Consuelo.

On 17 January 2004, Aberasturi, a huge landowner in Bukidnon, hastily entered Miarayon without prior notice to the tribal elders and bringing with him a dozen of fully armed workers, a truckload of fencing materials, rolls of barbwire, lumber and other roofing equipment.  Aberasturi ordered the building of farm structures for his ranch and vegetable farm within the ancestral domains of the Talaandigs. 

At early dawn of the next day, gun burst and indiscriminate firing were heard coming from Aberasturi’s camp. Continued firing of gunshots occurred on the following days.  During those days, Aberasturi’s men were seen walking in the streets harassing and pointing guns at women and children.  Not contented with their atrocities, they attacked the elementary school grounds causing alarm and fear among toddlers and school children.  Miarayon became a ghost town for weeks.

            Ironically, the Aberasturis filed a barrage of civil and criminal cases such as attempted murder, frustrated homicide, grave threats and arson against the Talaandigs.  Apparently, Aberasturi’s objective is to remove the Talaandigs from their lands at all cost.  The Aberasturis also employed different tactics for obtaining support from the community by hiring members of the Talaandigs in their farmlands and making them as fronts in their attacks. Consequently, the Talaandigs of MIarayon were fighting against the Talaandigs deceived by the Aberasturis. 

Meanwhile, Consuelo continues to serve delectable cuisines to the privileged Cagayanons while the Talaandigs of Bukidnon struggle to maintain their ancestral lands that feed them.  Consuelo continues to nourish the cattle to ensure that Cagayanons eat only the finest beef steaks while the Talaandigs are being shot indiscriminately to force them out of their lands.  Consuelo continues to serve fresh lettuce and broccolis to the vegetarians of the city while the Talaandigs are being erroneously prosecuted for murder and homicide in trial courts. 

            Concerned with the plight of the Talaandig communities, a number of institutions such as the Church, Cartwheel Foundation and BALAOD Mindanaw, concerted their efforts to strengthen and empower the Talaandig communities through paralegal strategies and capacity building.  Paralegal formations were conducted and regular clinics were carried out among the Talaandig communities including the women.  Direct legal assistance was provided.  More importantly, metalegal tactics and strategies were utilized in order to have a comprehensive approach against the bogus claims of the Aberasturis.

As time progresses, the Talaandigs worked together as one community in defending their cause. MILALITTRA, as represented by their tribal leaders and elders, started processing the registration of its CADT in the Register of Deeds. Some members of the Talaandig communities who were directly threatened by the Aberasturis, namely, Yolanda Anghel, Primo Egihon and Petoy Besto filed separate criminal cases of grave threats against the Aberasturis for the latter’s act of violence.  Further, the Talaandig communities defended their rights and asserted the primary jurisdiction of the NCIP in disputes concerning indigenous peoples in accordance to the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act in the accion reinvindicatoria case filed by the Aberasturis against them.  The said case is now pending in the Court of Appeals. 

It is but unfortunate that the Talaandig communities have to suffer these atrocities in order for Consuelo to satisfy the taste buds of the Aberasturis, Cojuangcos, Guingonas, Pelaezes, Pos, Ukayas, Lugods, and Quisumbings.  Their flavors are too expensive such that cultural communities are being made as sacrificial lambs.  Yet, the Talaandigs are far from giving up.  They are already empowered.  They have gathered their strength.  Indubitably, the Talaandigs will continue to fight for land rights and ancestral domains which rightfully belong to them. 

Indeed, Consuelo still kills, yet, Yolanda fights back!  That makes the difference.


Jan Perry B. Eugenio is one of the counsels of the Talaandig communities.  He prefers ginataang mongoose, humba and guso at Nang Emma’s Carenderia.

Yutang Pangandoy

Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law of 1988

Republic Act No. 6657

Chapter I
Preliminary Chapter
SECTION 1. Title. - This Act shall be known as the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law of 1988.
Kini ang sugilanon sa yuta…
Usa ka haruhay ug tul-id nga kaugmaon apan napukan sa usa ka yabag nga kahimtang.  Bisan pa niana, matud nila dili pa kini katapusan sa tanan.  Sa umaabot nga yugto sa kinabuhi aduna pa gihapoy hayag nga paglaom. Hinungdan nga napadayag ang mga kasinatian ug sugilanon sa 144 nga gipanag-iyahan sa mga pamilyang nakigbisog, sa mga igsoon natong lumad sa Miarayon, kang Jaqueline nga nakasinati  ug sa iyang mga kauban nga gihikawan ug gibawian og yuta, sa mga saop sa Misoret nga nagahandom nga madungog ang ilang mga ungol ug yangongo, sa walo ka pamilyang nawad-an og panimalay ug naglatagaw sa bisan asang lugar para lamang mabuhi, ug ang magtiayong Fuentes nga nabanlog sa bilanggoan. 
Sugilanon kabahin sa pakigbisog. Bugno nga hilabihan uban sa pagdahom nga mapahat ngadto sa mga kabus nga mag-uuma ug maangkon ang yutang gidamgo nga gisaad sa balaod basi sa programang repormang agraryo.  Ang mga kasinatian sa mga mag-uuma sa Mindanaw.
Paminawon ta ang ilang sugilanon…

SECTION 2. Declaration of Principles and Policies. - It is the policy of the State to pursue a Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP). The welfare of the landless farmers and farm workers will receive the highest consideration to promote social justice and to move the nation towards sound rural development and industrialization, and the establishment of owner cultivatorship of economic-sized farms as the basis of Philippine agriculture.
To this end, a more equitable distribution and ownership of land, with due regard to the rights of landowners to just compensation and to the ecological needs of the nation, shall be undertaken to provide farmers and farm workers with the opportunity to enhance their dignity and improve the quality of their lives through greater productivity of agricultural lands.
          8 ka armadong tawo… 3 ka mga dagkong trak…  1 ka pwersadong grupo.  “Unaha tong balay sa duol!” singgit ni sirip Maestrado ngadto sa iyang mga tawo sa PNP og gitudlo ang akong gamay nga balong-balong.  “Hangyo lang ko sir… hatagi intawon ko og 5 ka adlaw para kami ra ang moguba sa among mga balay para pud dili madaot ang among mga kahoy!  Pahangyoa intawon ko sir!”
          Tuig 1951 pa ako nagpuyo sa Sitio Domayocdoc, Barangay San Miguel, Lungsod sa Gingoog.  Tolo ka tuig gikan sa pagpuyo nako dinhi, tuig 1954, nakaplagan ko ang usa ka maanyag nga binuhat. Siya ang akong  pinalanggang asawa. Si Piligia.  Ultimo ug ordinaryo nga kinabuhi apan kanunayon nga nagpadayon tungod kay daghan kami mabuhat sa among gamayng luna nga naangkon namo pinaagi sa programang agraryo. Naangkon namo ang among yuta og anaa kami CLOA nga nagpamatood niana. Nagtanum kami sa mga naglaing-laing lagutmon sama sa  kamote, balanghoy, lut-ya, ubi ug uban pang talamnon nga makatabang sa among panginabuhian sama sa mais ug lubi.  Anaa usab kami pipila ka mga buhion nga mga hayop - baboy ug manok. Malinawon ang among kahimtang diri sa Domayocdoc.
          Tay, asa na ang atong himongaan?” ngangutana ang akong kamanghorang anak samtang nagapaabot kami sa among panihapon. Kadtong gabiuna, petsa 3 sa bulan sa Marso, nakita ko sa akong mga mata ang 9 ka balay nga nagun-ub ug gipang-guba sa mga tawo nga walay kasing-kasing ug kalo-oy.  Matod pa ni sirip, mga anak daw ni Don Sulpicio Lugod ang tinuod nga nanag-iya sa among mga luna.  Pero kinsa sila?  Wala ko sukad-sukad nakakita nila nga nagtikad dinhi sa among luna!  Pastilan!  Nanigulang nami diri sa San Miguel, wala mi sukad kasinati sama ani nga mga sitwasyon. Makalibog para kanamo nga amo ang yuta apan kalit lang mi pahawaon kay naay lain nga manggaranon nga nagpanaiya daw… samot kalibog ang among ulo kay gigamitan kami og pwersa ug kusog nga nakapasiging-siging kanamo. Wala kami arang mabuhat.  Nagtanga ug naghinoktok ko…mitulo ang akong luha… naghuna-huna ko kung simbako mahitabo nga mapahawa mi, asa na mamuyo ang among mga anak?  Pastilan!  Pastilan!

SEC. 4. Scope. – The Comprehensive Agrarian Reform law of 1988 shall cover, regardless of tenurial arrangement and commodity produced, all public and private agricultural lands as provided in Proclamation No. 131 and Executive Order No. 229, including other lands of the public domain suitable for agriculture.

“Titulo…. Usa ka importante nga dokumento.  Basihan nga ako nanag-iya sa yuta.”  Mao kini ang pabalik-balik nga hisgot sa gobyerno ug si bisan kinsa nga abogado.  Oo, ako usa ka mag-uuma nga adunay titulo… CLOA ang tawag nila niini.  Dokumento nga gihatag nganhi kanako niadtong tuig 2001.  Pero nganong hantod karon anaa pa gihapon ako sa gawas sa luna nga matod pa nila akoa man unta?  Nilabay na ang dugay nga mga katuigan apan walay bili ang gikuptan ko nga titulo. 

Sakit pamalandungon ky ang titulo nga 5 ka tuig na nako ginakuptan, matod pa sa DAR, kinahanglan nila e kansela.  Ang DAR usa ka instrumento nga nahatag kanako ang maong dokumento apan sila karon ang mokansela niini?  Sayop daw ang paghatag sa DAR nganhi kanako?  Wala daw makasubay sa husto nga proseso ug ang kanhi tag-iya wala mabayari sa gobyerno?  Pero ngano?  Nganong ako isip usa ka mag-uuma ang manubag sa tanan kasaypanan nga nabuhat sa DAR o gobyerno?  Nganong ako ang mag-antos sa sayop nga wala nako mabuhat?  Ang nabuhat ko lang mao ang pagbaton og kaugalingong yuta ug kini akong katungod… Ngano man DAR?  Ngano imong gipasagdan ang mga panghitabo?  Dili ba, ikaw man unta ang magpaluyo kanako ug magprotektar sa akong mga katungod isip usa ka mag-uuma?  Ang CLOA ba nga imong gihatag ug gidonol kanako usa lang ba ka papel o magpabilin nga papel nga walay pulos?

SEC. 9. Ancestral Lands. - For purposes of this Act, ancestral lands of each indigenous cultural community shall include, but not be limited to, lands in the actual, continuous and open possession and occupation of the community and its members: Provided, That the Torrens System shall be respected.
The right of these communities to their ancestral lands shall be protected to ensure their economic, social and cultural well-being. In line with the other principles of self-determination and autonomy, the systems of land ownership, land use, and the modes of settling land disputes of all these communities must be recognized and respected.
            ASA ANG MGA GAHI?  GAHI MAN KAHA ANG MIARAYON? GAHI MAN KAHA MO! GAHI MAN KAHA ANG MGA ANGHEL?  Unsa to siya?  Nganong nanghasi man sila ni Tamsi kanako?  ASA ANG MGA ANGHEL NGA PUTI OG ITLOG?  Nganong gitiunan man ko sa mga armado nga tawo sa taas ug dagko nga mga armas? Suko kaayo ang mga dagway daw andam mopatay… andam na mandasmag ug mandagmal.  PINUSILAY TA!  Nganong nanghasi man sila kanako nga wala man koy gibuhat nga dautan nila. Dili man ni ilang teritoryo? Unsa ba kaha ilang motibo? ASA ANG MGA GAHI?  Yuta ni sa mga Talaandig!  GAHI MAN KAHA ANG MIARAYON?  Gihatag na ni sa presidente niadtong 2003!  GAHI MAN KAHA ANG MGA ANGHEL!  Kabalo man sila nga amo na ni nga yuta!  ASA MAN ANG MGA ANGHEL NGA PUTI OG ITLOG?  Nganong ilogon man ni Don Ramon Aberasturri ang among Yutang Kabilin? Kami nga mga Talaandig nanag-iya na niining yutaa sa kanhiay pa!  Kabilin sa among mga ginikanan nga nangahanaw na!  Ana ba kasayon nila daug-daogon ang mga kabus ug walay igong kusog nga mosukol?

SEC. 24. Award to Beneficiaries. - The rights and responsibilities of the beneficiary shall commence from the time the DAR makes an award of the land to him, which award shall be completed within one hundred eighty (180) days from the time the DAR takes actual possession of the land. Ownership of the beneficiary shall be evidenced by a Certificate of Land Ownership Award, which shall contain the restrictions and conditions provided for in this Act, and shall be recorded in the Register of Deeds concerned and annotated on the Certificate of Title.
Sa Purok 6, Bolisong, lungsod sa El Salvador, nahitabo ang ngilngig nga pagpanghasi sa mga maguuma nga malinawong nagatikad sa ilang tagsa-tagsa ka luna… kini usa lamang ka pahat sa among gamay nga kasinatian.
Alas ang takna sa kabuntagon, miabot ang trak nga gipanagiyahan ni Julie Dayrit, sakay ang mga armadong grupo.  Ang mga sinugong tawo ni Dayrit mikalit lang og sulod sa kinoral ug gitikad nga kayutaan sa Bolisong CARP Beneficiaries Association (BCBA) ug diha-diha, atras-abanti, gipangligsan ug ginayatak-yatakan sa walay kasing-kasing nga mga sinugo ni Dayrit ang mga mais sa uma sa taga BCBA.  Gipang-ibot ang mga posti sa koral, gipanglangkat ug gisunog ang mga balatingga nga didto nakapintal ang mga numero sa CLOA nga nagapamatood nga sila ang tag-iya sa maong yuta.
Si Jose usa ka benepisyaryo sa maong yuta ug nagapuyo sulod sa ilang naangkon nga luna.  “Niadtong taknaa anaa ako sa lungsod sa Opol aron mag-apil ug husay sa among kaso.  Mao nalang ang akong naabtan nga ang akong payag lahi na ang nagpuyo.  Mga armadong tawo na.  Ang akong asawa ug mga anak atoa na nagpungko ug nagtikong-kong sa gamay nga payag-hulatanan, wala sila’y dala nga bisan usa ka gamit gikan sa among balay kay tionan man sila sa pusil sa mga guardia ni Dayrit.
Guba! Labonog ang mga sipa ug nanglagapak ang mga bonal… gipangtadyakan ang mga pultahan ug gipangbonalan ang mga dingding nga sulirap.  Hinongdan sa pagkahagba sa balay sa among kaubang maguuma.
Nag-ilog kinabuhi si Jaquiline tungod kay ahat ang iyang pagpanganak.  Walay nakatabang kaniya tungod kay nabudlay ug nagkapuliki ang tanan sa pag-atiman sa panghitabo.  Apil iyang bana atoa sa ilang nataran nakig-ariglo nga dili maguba ilang balay.  Miotong og taman si Jaquiline...luspad na.  Mihilak ang bata. Wala pa makalingkawas si jaquiline… mao na lang ilang naabtan nga luya na siya… nagkugos sa iyang anak samtang nagtangag pa ang pusod sa iyang matris ug nagbanaw ang dugo sa iyang lubot.
“Nagtapok kaming tanan.  Asa na kaha mi mopaingon?  Asa mi magpuyo?  Unsa among kaonon?  Unsa ang kaugmaon sa among mga anak?  Kami? “
Bisan pa sa kawad-on ug lisod sa sitwasyuon, nagapabilin gihapon ang among salig sa proseso ug sistema sa justisya nga kini adunay kasulbaran sa malinaw nga pamaagi. Nagpadayon ang hulga ug mga pagpanamastamas sa katungod adtong panahona upon wala matandog ang among mga kadasig

SEC. 37. Support Services to the Beneficiaries. – The PARC shall ensure that support services to farmer-beneficiaries are provided, such as:
(a)  Land surveys and titling;
(b)  Liberalized terms on credit facilities and production loans;
(c)   Extension services by way of planting, cropping, production and post-harvest technology transfer, as well as marketing and management assistance and support to cooperatives and farmer’s organizations;
(d)  Infrastructure such as access trails, mini-dams, public utilities, marketing and storage facilities; and
(e)  Research, production and use of organic fertilizers and other local substances necessary in farming and cultivation.   
13 minutos.  Kapoy magpaabot.  2 ka oras, 4 minutos.  Napul-an nako ug paabot.  6 ka adlaw, 7 ka oras, 10 minutos.  Kalisod ba kung walay buhaton.  Lisod kung naa ta sa sulod.  Peste!  Wala ko’y mabuhat diri… maboang ko!
          17 ka adlaw, 8 ka oras, 3 ka minutos.  Malisod kaayo kay kaming duha sa akong pinalanggang asawa nga si Patricia ang walay mabuhat.  Nisamot kalisod ang akong gibati kay apil ang akong manghud nga si Ramir ang walay mabuhat.  Kalitse!  Lisod ning naa ra ta sa sulod!  1 ka bulan, 5 ka adlaw, 9 ka oras, 11 minutos.  Kaming tulo nagpabilin pa gihapon nga nabanlog sa bilanggoan.  Sulod sa kwarto sa BJMP diri sa Valencia.  Hinungdan? Tungod sa pagpasangil kanamo sa kanhing nagahupot sa yuta. Kami napreso sa bilanggoan tungod sa among malinawong pagpuyo ug pagpanginabuhi sa among kaugalingong yuta.  300, 000 ang kantidad kada usa sa amo para kami maka gawas sa makadyot.  Pesteng yawa!
          6 ka bulan, 9 ka adlaw, 18 ka oras, 3 minutos.  Kami nakigbisog nga mabawi ang among yuta para matagaan og maayo nga kinabuhi ang among tulo ka anak ug labaw sa tanan, mahatag ang ilang mga panginahanglan.  Kinsa na kaha ang nag-alima kanila karon?  Naa ba kaha silay makaon?  Naka-eskwela pa ba kaha sila?  Buhi pa kaha sila?  Sakit kau para kanamo nga mga ginikanan nga mahilayo sa among mga anak. 10 ka bulan, 2 ka adlaw, 2 ka oras, 15 minutos.  Nganong ingon ani na man ni among kinabuhi nga gipangandoy man lang unta namo nga makabaton ug makaangkon sa yuta?  Karon nga anaa na sa amo ang yuta, napriso naman hinuon mi!  Asa ang hustisya niana? 
          1 ka tuig, 2 ka bulan, 7 ka adlaw, 3 ka oras, 10 minutos.  Napul-an na ko og paabot… Peste!

SEC. 65. Conversion of Lands . - After the lapse of five (5) years from its award, when the land ceases to be economically feasible and sound for agricultural purposes, or the locality has become urbanized and the land will have greater economic value for residential, commercial or industrial purposes, the DAR, upon application of the beneficiary or the landowner, with due notice to the affected parties, and subject to existing laws, may authorize the reclassification or conversion of the land and its disposition: Provided, That the beneficiary shall have fully paid his obligation.

Ako si Calib, usa ka miyembro sa MAPALAD...  

Katorse anyos pa lang ako adtong panahuna nga nakiglambigit ko para makaangkon og kaugalingon nga yuta ako ug ang akong pamilya. Makabaton og kaugalingong yuta?  Wala koy masabtan bahin ani… sukad sa akong pagkahimugso hangtod atong tongura, ang akong nasayran mao nga walay usa ka tawo nga pwede magmanag-iya og yuta tungod kay ang yuta gipanag-iyahan sa tanan.  Kini ang gitudlo ug ginamatoto sa akong mga ginikanan.  Ang among tribu nga Higaonon ang nagmanag-iya niining tibook 144.  Si Quisumbing daw ang tag-iya?  Karon si Cojuangco?  Kinsa nang mga tawhana?  Wala ko kaila nila… mga apuhan nako nga higaonon ang tag-iya niini.  Ang nakalibog lang kanako kay kung amo kini ngano wala mi sa sulod niini?  Ngano kinahanglan magpakita pa og papel nga magpamatood nga amo ni?  Ngano tugotan sa gobyerno nga tukuran og dagkung hotel, stablis semento o dagkung gambalay para sa babuyan?  Sa nasayran ko… ang yuta tamnanan ug mais, otanon, ug uban pang talamnon para sa among panginabuhian.

10 na ka katuigan ang milabay nga miadto ako sa lungsod sa manila para ipag-away ug isugakod ang among mga katungod sa among yuta… 10 anyos na ang milabay apan nagapaabot pa gihapon ko ug ang akong mga kauban nga makabalik mi og tikad sa among yuta… ang yuta nga kabilin sa among mga apuhan.

24 anyos na ko karon, adunay anak.  Unsaon kaha nako pagpasabot kanila nga ang nagkanaw-kanaw nga kayutaan nga malantawan sa gawas sa among panimalay among gipanag-iyahan?  Unsa kaha kung mangutana sila, “Tay, nganong wala ta sa sulod?  Tay, kinsa sila?  Ngano ilang gitukuran og mga dagkung hotel, stablis semento o dagkung gambalay para sa babuyan?”  Unsaon nako pagtubag?  Ikaw, unsaon nimo pagtubag?
SEC. 74. Penalties. Any person who knowingly or willfully violates the provisions of this Act shall be punished by imprisonment of not less than one (1) month to not more than three (3) years or a fine of not less than one thousand pesos (P1,000.00) and not more than fifteen thousand pesos (P15,000.00), or both at the discretion of the court.
Ang pagtotok sa bahandi ug gahum ngadto sa mga kamot sa pipila lang wala sukad makatabang para adunay malahutayong kalinaw ug kasigurohan sa kinabuhi.  Ang mga panghitabo sa kagahapon ug kasinatian nagpamatood nga ang pagpangabuso ug kagubot maoy kasagaran nga hinungdan sa pagka walay katagbawan.  Kini nakapabilo sa usa ka rebolusyon nga masmoresulta sa labaw pa nga problema.

Ang mga sugilanon nga napahat usa lamang ka buhi nga tistigo nga adunay dili patas nga sitwasyon sa katilingban.  Ang uban adunay sobra apan sa laing bahin, ang uban nagutman dili tungod kay walay salapi pangpalit sa pagkaon apan tungod kay walay makaon.  Walay pagkaon tungod kay walay yutang gitikad ug gipanag-iyahan.  Hulaton pa ba nato nga adunay makalas nga kinabuhi?  Basin unya dili na mahitabo nga ang yuta mamahimong tamnanan sa binhi apan mahimong yuta nga lubnganan  sa mga mag-uuma nga nagpakamatay sa ilang gituohan o sa mga mag-uuma nga wala masayod sa unsa ang ilang gipakigbisugan.

Sulod sa duha ka dekada sukad sa pag-implementar sa CARP, nagpabilin ang pit-os nga kahimtang sa  mga mag-uuma apan sa katapusang yugto sa pakigbisog nakab-ot ang ilang mga damgo ug pangandoy. Ang 20 ka anyos nga bugno sulod sa kwarto ug kalsada nagbunga ug kadaugan sa mga mag-uuma sa Hacienda Maria, sa 277 ektarya sa Sta. Josefa, Agusan del Sur.  Kini dayag nga ginasaysay…

Paminawa ang uban pa nga mga hagit ug tinuoray nga sugilanon sa yuta…
SEC. 76. Repealing Clause. - Section 35 of Republic Act Number 3844, Presidential Decree Number 316, the last two paragraphs of Section 12 of Presidential Decree Number 1038, and all other laws, decrees, executive orders, rules and regulations, issuances or parts thereof inconsistent with this Act are hereby repealed or amended accordingly.
SEC. 77. Separability Clause. - If, for any reason, any section or provision of this Act is declared null and void, no other section, provision or part thereof shall be affected and the same shall remain in full force and effect.
SEC. 78. Effectivity Clause. - This Act shall take effect immediately after publication in at least two (2) national newspapers of general circulation.
Approved:  June 10, 1988

** Ang mga manunulat nga si Jan Perry B. Eugenio, Gemro Rosiolado, Normita Batula ug mga kauban sa BALAOD Mindanaw.  Sila, uban sa ALG, nagatabang sa pagduso sa CARP Acceleration Bill sulod sa kongreso.